Benjamin Martyn was employed by the Georgia Trustees to be their official secretary. It was Martyn’s job to keep the official records for the Georgia Colony. In 1741, Martyn’s “An Impartial Inquiry into the State and Utility of the Province of Georgia” was published. The document was created for the express purpose of addressing critics of the colony.
Benjamin Martyn (1699-1763). “An Impartial Inquiry into the State and Utility of the Province of Georgia.” In Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Volume I.
As the head executive leader in the Royal Colony of Georgia, James Wright had many responsibilities, one of which was maintaining peaceful relations with the native population. The March 28, 1774, proclamation given by James Wright offers a glimpse into the office of Royal Governor, the daily life issues of the colony, and the situation in Georgia just before the American Revolution.
The Georgia Gazette, the colony’s first newspaper, started printing in 1763. It is a great resource for understanding life in Royal Georgia. The particular advertisements selected here focus on the slave trade in Georgia. Slavery was banned in Georgia until 1751. Once the ban was lifted, the slave population in Georgia quickly grew as wealthy South Carolina planters expanded to Georgia.
James Wright served as royal governor of Georgia from 1761-1782. The James Wright Papers at GHS contain letters, proclamations, and reports written by Governor Wright. A report written to Lord Dartmouth in 1773 includes a chart showing all exports and imports to the Port of Savannah the previous year.
“A New and Accurate Account of the Provinces of South-Carolina and Georgia…” was part of a promotional campaign led by the Trustees to encourage emigrants to sign-up for the new colony and to solicit charitable contributions for the venture.
“A New and Accurate Account of the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia: With Many Curious and Useful Observations on the Trade, Navigation and Plantations of Great Britain, Compared with Her Most Powerful Maritime Neighbors in Ancient and Modern Times.” London: Printed for J. Worrall at the Bible and Dove in Bell-Yard near Lincoln’s Inn; and Sold by J. Roberts near the Oxford-Arms in Warwick-Lane, 1732. In the Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. 1.
By 1970, most Georgians lived in cities and made their living doing something other than farming. The county unit system was invalidated in 1962 making every Georgians’ vote equal in primary elections. The same Supreme Court rulings that declared the county unit system invalid called for the redrawing of districts in Georgia to more accurately reflect the population. Redistricting was controversial in the 1960s and 1970s and continues to spark controversy as districts are redrawn after each U.S. census. In 1971, Jimmy Carter, a state senator and failed gubernatorial candidate, became Governor of Georgia. In 1977, Jimmy Carter became the first Georgian to hold the office of President of the United States of America. Since his one term in the White House, Carter has played an important role in Georgia and the nation as a philanthropist and activist for peace. The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, located in Atlanta, is an excellent resource for researchers and historians of all ages. In 1996, Georgia hosted the Olympic Games. Atlanta went through a years-long makeover to prepare for hosting the international event. Primary sources from 1970 until the present day exist in abundance. This primary source set offers five primary sources related to this period.
At the end of World War II, the United States entered a period of extreme growth and change. Evidence of this growth and change can be seen in the development of the modern Civil Rights Movement. The fight for equality and resistance to discriminatory practices such as segregation of public facilities began in the nineteenth-century when Jim Crow legislation institutionalized segregation based on race. Although resistance to these discriminatory practices did not begin in 1945, the term Civil Rights Movement is often used specifically to refer to the struggles between 1945 and 1970 to end discrimination against African-Americans and to put an end to racial segregation. Several important events occurred during Georgia’s Civil Rights Movement including, the ending of the white primary in 1946, the Albany Movement, and the desegregation of the University of Georgia to name a few. Several Georgians played key leadership roles in the national modern Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr. and Andrew Young. This primary source set includes five analyzed sources related to Georgia’s modern Civil Rights Movement. It also offers additional primary and secondary sources related to the topic. There are several excellent online sources related to Georgia’s Civil Rights Movement linked on this teaching guide as well.
Georgia would not be the same after World War II. During WWII billions of dollars were invested in war industries and military bases throughout the South. Wartime activities brought relief from the economic depression and the economic boom continued after the war’s end. Atlanta became the center of commerce and industry for Georgia and the entire South. Leaders like Ivan Allen, Jr. and William Hartsfield promoted Atlanta to the world as a progressive business city. Atlanta built new stadiums and attracted major league sports teams to the city. In rural areas, Georgia’s agriculture benefited from diversification and modernization. Ellis Arnall brought sweeping changes to Georgia during his term as governor from 1940 to 1942. Major changes also came through the modern Civil Rights Movement which is the focus of the second half of this primary source set. There are four primary sources dedicated to SS8H10. Moreover, this guide will provide extra primary and secondary resources for the classroom
When America entered World War II in 1941, Georgia entered a new period of history. The Second World War funneled federal money into southern defense, and Georgia hosted more military installations than any other state besides Texas. Approximately 320,000 Georgians fought in the war and those on the home front built ships and airplanes, manufactured ammunition, grew victory gardens, bought and sold war bonds, wrote letters to soldiers, and more. In mobilizing for the war effort, Georgia’s economy shifted more towards industry and manufacturing than ever before, bringing Georgia more fully into the modern era and pulling it out of economic Depression. The following sources give students a look into the wartime effort, including the progression and regression on the homefront during these years.
Like most places in the world, Georgia was affected by the First World War and played a major role, even as the country initially ignored the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. By the end of the war, though, the state housed many training grounds for American troops and contributed around 100,000 Georgians to U.S. forces. The war also affected much of the homefront, as women and African-Americans began taking part in the workforce when men went across the ocean, especially as white men were actively trying to prohibit black men from volunteering or being drafted to join the military. After the war, the rest of the nation was experiencing intense urbanization, but most of the South was remaining fairly rural and extremely segregated. When economic depression hit, African-Americans were hit hardest and many New Deal plans fell flat. These sources demonstrate Georgian life for blacks and whites during the First World War and through the Great Depression.